Cerebral and Cerebellar Histogenesis
The brain is one of the most important and complex organs of the body. Due to its significance, much research has focussed on the development of the cerebrum and cerebellum to learn of the mechanisms involved in the lamination. The cerebrum is the major control unit of an organism being responsible for memory, its personality, and other cognitive functions. The cerebellum is critical for the coordination of movement integrating many inputs from centers in cerebrum, pons and inferior olive to correct and fine-tune motor output.
Fundamental mechanisms of neural development are conserved amongst species which allows animal models to be representative of human brain development. Popular models used include the Drosophila melanogaster and mice. Spemann and Mangold (1920s) were the first ones to discover neural induction during grafting experiments from a region they termed the "organizer". The organizer was found to (through factors such as noggin, chordin, follistatin) not only direct cells towards the neural fate but also be responsible for specifying different regions of the CNS which has consequently initiated further interest in research. The forebrain, nevertheless, is the least well studied structure of the CNS which ultimately forms the most prominent and complex region of the brain.
The prolonged development of the cerebrum and cerebellum make them particularly vulnerable to many developmental abnormalities of which some are described here.
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The video below shows an overview of the stages of brain development in a fetus from conception to birth. These processes are elucidated in this website in the throughout the sections.